Litter Decomposition describes one of the most important processes in the biosphere - the decay of organic matter. It focuses on the decomposition process of foliar litter in the terrestrial systems of boreal and temperate forests due to the greater amount of data from those biomes. The availability of several long-term studies from these forest types allows a more in-depth approach to the later stages of decomposition and humus formation. Differences between the decay of woody matter and foliar litter is discussed in detail and a different pattern for decomposition is introduced.
Are we alone in the universe? The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been given fresh impetus in recent years following developments in space science which go beyond speculation. The evidence that many stars are accompanied by planets, the detection of organic material in the circumstellar disks of which planets are created, and claims regarding microfossils on Martian meteorites have all led to many new empirical searches. Against the background of these dramatic new developments in science,SETIcritically evalutes claims concerning the status of SETI as a genuine scientific research program and examines the attempts to establish contact with other intelligent life forms in the past thirty years. David Lamb also asseses competing theories on the origin of life on Earth, discoveries of ex-solar planets and proposals for space colonies as well as the technical and ethical issues bound up with them. Most importantly, he considers the benefits and drawbacks of communicationwith new life forms: how we should communicate and whether we should.
For one-term courses in Organic Chemistry.
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A comprehensive, problem-solving approach for the brief Organic Chemistry course.
Modern and thorough revisions to the streamlined, Essential Organic Chemistryfocus on developing students' problem solving and analytical reasoning skills throughout organic chemistry. Organized around reaction similarities and rich with contemporary biochemical connections, Bruice'sThird Edition discourages memorization and encourages students to be mindful of the fundamental reasoning behind organic reactivity: electrophiles react with nucleophiles.
Developed to support a diverse student audience studying organic chemistry for the first and only time,Essentials fosters an understanding of the principles of organic structure and reaction mechanisms, encourages skill development through new Tutorial Spreads and and emphasizes bioorganic processes. Contemporary and rigorous,Essentials addresses the skills needed for the 2015 MCAT and serves both pre-med and biology majors.
Also Available with MasteringChemistryÂ®
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In many decision problems, e.g. from the area of production and logistics manage ment, the evaluation of alternatives and the determination of an optimal or at least suboptimal solution is an important but dif?cult task. For most such problems no ef?cient algorithm is known and classical approaches of Operations Research like Mixed Integer Linear Programming or Dynamic Pro gramming are often of limited use due to excessive computation time. Therefore, dedicated heuristic solution approaches have been developed which aim at providing good solutions in reasonable time for a given problem. However, such methods have two major drawbacks: First, they are tailored to a speci?c prob lem and their adaption to other problems is dif?cult and in many cases even impos sible. Second, they are typically designed to "build" one single solution in the most effective way, whereas most decision problems have a vast number of feasible solu tions. Hence usually the chances are high that there exist better ones. To overcome these limitations, problem independent search strategies, in particular metaheuris tics, have been proposed. This book provides an elementary step by step introduction to metaheuristics focusing on the search concepts they are based on. The ?rst part demonstrates un derlying concepts of search strategies using a simple example optimization problem.
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