Litter Decomposition describes one of the most important processes in the biosphere - the decay of organic matter. It focuses on the decomposition process of foliar litter in the terrestrial systems of boreal and temperate forests due to the greater amount of data from those biomes. The availability of several long-term studies from these forest types allows a more in-depth approach to the later stages of decomposition and humus formation. Differences between the decay of woody matter and foliar litter is discussed in detail and a different pattern for decomposition is introduced.
Are we alone in the universe? The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been given fresh impetus in recent years following developments in space science which go beyond speculation. The evidence that many stars are accompanied by planets, the detection of organic material in the circumstellar disks of which planets are created, and claims regarding microfossils on Martian meteorites have all led to many new empirical searches. Against the background of these dramatic new developments in science,SETIcritically evalutes claims concerning the status of SETI as a genuine scientific research program and examines the attempts to establish contact with other intelligent life forms in the past thirty years. David Lamb also asseses competing theories on the origin of life on Earth, discoveries of ex-solar planets and proposals for space colonies as well as the technical and ethical issues bound up with them. Most importantly, he considers the benefits and drawbacks of communicationwith new life forms: how we should communicate and whether we should.
Element speciation determines the different forms a chemical element can take within a given compound, enabling chemists to predict possible ramifications for the environment and human health. This comprehensive book focuses on the analytical aspects and instrumentation of speciation, while covering the gamut of metal speciation forms with adverse effects on biological materials and the environment at large.<br> <br> The book consists of contributions by a truly international group of leading authorities on element speciation in bioinorganic chemistry. The editor--a contributor here himself--traces the developments in the field, discussing the advances made over the past decade in various methodologies and the significance of the increased capacity to detect extremely small concentrations of trace elements in various media.<br> <br> Several chapters are dedicated to the various methods and applications of speciation, exploring specific analytical methods, such as direct, chromatographic and nonchromatographic methods, as well as nuclear-based and voltammetric methods. Others cover speciation in various natural water and marine environments and its manifestation in biological materials, human serum, or foodstuff. In addition, the book examines speciation theory and legal aspects as well as questions of quality and sources of errors--issues that underscore the perennial need to develop new methods for obtaining still more accurate data.<br> <br> Extremely broad in scope and rich in detail, this volume provides the key to improving the state of the art in the field, and is sure to stimulate further research. It stands as a one-of-a-kind reference for analytical and inorganic chemists, as well as biochemists, in a wide range of disciplines, including toxicology, environmental science, nutrition research, clinical chemistry, and pharmacology.<br> <br> A complete reference for the analytical and instrumental aspects of speciation<br> <br> This unique volume provides both a comprehensive reference and a practical guide to the complete range of issues arising from element speciation. It concentrates on analytical methods and instrumentation in bioinorganic chemistry--especially as applied to water-related projects--while addressing the larger environmental and human-health concerns of our times.<br> <br> Complete with over 100 illustrations, this collaborative effort by an international group of experts describes <br> * Methods for the detection and analysis of species elements, including direct methods, atomic spectrometry, nuclear activation analysis and radio tracer, high-performance chromatography, or voltammetric procedures <br> * Specific effects of various species elements, including heavy metals, arsenic, and many other trace elements <br> * Biological materials showing concentrations of trace elements, including human serum, milk, and marine organisms <br> * Various environments affected by element speciation, such as natural waters, sea waters, estuarine, and coastal environments <br> * How to avoid common pitfalls and obtain sound and accurate data<br> <br> <br> For anyone involved in environmental and earth sciences, as well as the related areas of public health, pharmacology, toxicology, nutritional research, or environmental regulations, this important work offers the most systematic survey of element speciation to date. It also provides historical perspective, a preview of expected developments, and a multitude of new ideas for further research.<br> <br> The author of approximately 240 published papers and three previous books, Dr. Caroli is an active member of numerous national and international committees and organizations concerned with chemicals in the environment. He also sits on the editorial or advisory boards of several scientific journals, including the Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectroscopy, Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, and Microchemical Journal.
Enhancing Practice through Classroom Research addresses the growing trend in educational contexts for teachers to engage in CPD and develop as excellent practitioners. It#xE3;#xAC;#xAC;is a guide for teachers, by teachers, on how to improve practice - and understanding of practice - through a personal process of reflection, research and action. The book will provide much needed guidance for teachers engaged in postgraduate studies in reflective practice and professional development, and structured around real life examples of research undertaken by teachers, it will be highly supportive for teachers in the classroom interested in small-scale research projects. The book presents a framework beginning and developing research, in four key sections: Section one deals with reflection on practice, exploring concerns about practice and identifying values; section two examines ideas around why practitioners might be concerned about their practice; section three outlines how readers can develop a personal action plan and gather data to show any changes or possible improvements in their work; the final section shows how readers can draw on the evidence they have produced to develop their own personal theory of education. It covers key issues central to effective professional development and improving practice in the classroom: Understanding the concept of the professional and reflecting on how values inform practice Identifying critical questions such as why you teach as you do Deciding how to investigate the issues you#xE2;#xAC;"ve identified #xE2;#xAC;#x1C; developing a research plan and collecting data Interpreting and making meaning from data Writing up each stage of your research Each section includes two chapters, the first describing real life experiences of researching and reflection in the classroom, giving the reader the opportunity to use the studies to think critically and reflect on their own practice. The second chapter explains a specific stage of the research process project and its rationale, and includes tasks throughout for readers to undertake to encourage reflection.
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