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Litter Decomposition describes one of the most important processes in the biosphere - the decay of organic matter. It focuses on the decomposition process of foliar litter in the terrestrial systems of boreal and temperate forests due to the greater amount of data from those biomes. The availability of several long-term studies from these forest types allows a more in-depth approach to the later stages of decomposition and humus formation. Differences between the decay of woody matter and foliar litter is discussed in detail and a different pattern for decomposition is introduced.
Are we alone in the universe? The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been given fresh impetus in recent years following developments in space science which go beyond speculation. The evidence that many stars are accompanied by planets, the detection of organic material in the circumstellar disks of which planets are created, and claims regarding microfossils on Martian meteorites have all led to many new empirical searches. Against the background of these dramatic new developments in science,SETIcritically evalutes claims concerning the status of SETI as a genuine scientific research program and examines the attempts to establish contact with other intelligent life forms in the past thirty years. David Lamb also asseses competing theories on the origin of life on Earth, discoveries of ex-solar planets and proposals for space colonies as well as the technical and ethical issues bound up with them. Most importantly, he considers the benefits and drawbacks of communicationwith new life forms: how we should communicate and whether we should.
At a point where most introductory organic chemistry texts end, this problems-based workbook picks up the thread to lead students through a graduated set of 120 problems. With extensive detailed spectral data, it contains a variety of problems designed by renowned authors to develop proficiency in organic structure determination. This workbook leads you from basic problems encountered in introductory organic chemistry textbooks to highly complex natural product-based problems. It presents a concept-based learning platform, introducing key concepts sequentially and reinforcing them with problems that exemplify the complexities and underlying principles that govern each concept. The book is organized in such a way that allows you to work through the problems in order or in selections according to your experience and desired area of mastery. It also provides access to raw data files online that can be downloaded and used for data manipulation using freeware or commercial software. With its problem-centered approach, integrated use of online and digital resources, and appendices that include notes and hints, Problems in Organic Structure Determination: A Practical Approach to NMR Spectroscopy is an outstanding resource for training students and professionals in structure determination.
Large areas of the warm, humid tropics in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa are hilly or mountainous. Jackson and Scherr (1995) estimate that these tropical hillside areas are inhabited by 500 million people, or one-tenth of the current world population, many of whom practice subsistence agriculture. The region most affected is Asia which has the lowest area of arable land per capita. Aside from limited areas of irrigated terraces, most of the sloping land, which constitutes 60% to 90% of the land resources in many Southeast Asian countries, has been by-passed in the economic development of the region (Maglinao and Hashim, 1993). Poverty in these areas is often high, in contrast to the relative wealth of irri- gated rice farms in lowland areas that benefited from the green revolution. Rapid population growth in some countries is also exacerbating the problems of hillside areas. Increasingly, people are migrating from high-potential lowland areas where land is scarce to more remote hillside areas. Such migra- tion, together with inherent high population growth, is forcing a transforma- tion in land use from subsistence to permanent agriculture on fragile slopes, and is creating a new suite of social, economic, and environmental problems (Garrity, 1993; Maglinao and Hashim, 1993).
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